Energy refers to everything from fossil fuels, like oil and gas, to renewable energy sources, like wind and solar power, and the infrastructure that underpins them, like the national grid and energy storage. Energy security is a function of availability, consistent access, and predictable pricing. Energy becomes a national security and foreign policy issue when energy insecurity affects a country's governing policies. The United States can ensure energy security by diversifying energy sources, ensuring domestic production, and securing both distribution and access.
‘Energy security’ is not ‘energy independence.’ Not all of the energy used in a country must come from within its own borders. This is neither obtainable nor desirable in a globalized world. In a world of globally traded commodities, it is no longer possible to be truly energy independent: even domestically produced energy sources are subject to fluctuations in global commodity markets.
Over the last decade, the United States has experienced an energy revolution, which has allowed it to increasingly use energy as a tool of statecraft. For example, since 2014 the U.S. has drastically increased domestic oil production, allowing it to greater affect global oil prices. The U.S. has also increased its production of renewable energy. In 2020, renewable energy became the second-most important energy for electricity generation. U.S. efforts in renewable energy position it as a global energy leader as the world moves away from fossil fuels.